Added: Tangie Legrand - Date: 08.02.2022 11:34 - Views: 38222 - Clicks: 3210
This website is coordinated by Modus Operandi. Luis Alberto CorderoParis, November Not only does war represent a violent division and disagreement between two opposing parties, it also separates and fractures societal cohesion amongst each group and directly impacts each individual on a personal level. Undoubtedly, both men and women suffer greatly from the consequences of war; yet it is important to acknowledge that each group is affected differently. Recognizing these differences is not intended to diminish or exalt the pains and needs of one particular group over another, but rather is necessary to consider when creating a peace-building plan that can most effectively address the specific relevant issues of each group in order to repair the injustices incurred from war.
The subject of war and its associated themes are frequently analyzed within a male-dominated perspective. When undergoing a process of political reconstruction after cease-fire is achieved, it is important to move away from this view and treatment of women as victims, but rather value their capabilities, experiences, and unique perspective, incorporating them Women seeking La Paz the elaboration and implementation of actions towards peace.
Reaching a state of lasting peace is complex and goes beyond simply terminating active combat; likewise, the true form of democracy entails much more than high electoral voting attendance. Peace must be intended to affect all people and permeate every level and aspect of life.
Under this premise, valuable efforts towards peace and democratization can not be attained if half of the population is deprived of conditions of equality, since the existence of discrepancies due to gender runs contradictory to the main principals ascribed to democracy.
These conditions led to the formation of revolutionary groups inspired by an agenda towards the pursuit of social justice against the established right-wing dictatorial governments.
Therefore, by ing these movements, which women did amply and in varying capacities, ranging from being soldiers, community and household leaders, human rights advocates, among many other occupations, provided a beginning towards a departure from the constraints in their ased gendered-biased roles.
Inspired by a sense of duty, many men ed the arm forces and suddenly the responsibility of being the sole provider in charge of their families and communities rested upon women. These transformations served to awaken within women a sense of political consciousness and Women seeking La Paz responsibility, as made evident by the fact that many Central American Women seeking La Paz, either by choice or obligation, ed the armed forces in the combat zone.
It is estimated that in El Salvador out of a total of 15, combatants were female 4while at the time of demobilization in Guatemala inrecords show women comprised 15 percent of all soldiers 5. In comparison, Nicaragua held slightly lower, yet still ificant, figures of female combat participation in which an estimated 7—15 percent of Contra combatants and a percent of Sandinista soldiers were female 6. In conjunction with their role as soldiers, women were not immune to the atrocities of war, and in particular experienced sexual, physical, and emotional abuse, torture, abduction, and untimely death.
Also, along with their children and elders, many rural women were Women seeking La Paz displaced from their homes and consequently lost their lands and material possessions, causing a large migratory wave towards Mexico and the United States.
According to census data collected in El Salvador inof thedisplaced persons attended by the National Commission for the Attention of Displaced People, The Accords, ed on August 7,defined a series of national and regional tasks to be accomplished in order for the region to build peace, such as: cease fire, national reconciliation, democratization, free elections, and an end to the support of rebel groups. These goals went beyond the negotiation of a cease-fire as they sought to address the root causes of the crises and demonstrated an understanding of peace as a continuously ongoing process and not simply as an end that can be directly achieved.
The ing of the Esquipulas II Peace Accords has proven to be a remarkable historical event in large part because the desire for peace was originated and actively pursued by top political officials from within the region and was not imposed by outside forces foreign to the conflict. This unique approach of achieving peace by forming a united regional front, conscientious of the commitment required both at the national and regional levels, not only accomplished a cease-fire but allowed the path to be paved for the process of democratization to begin.
As a result, the Peace Accords failed to include provisions that took gender into consideration. In many instances this proved to propel discriminatory actions, for example, male ex-combatants were acknowledged and received their entitled war reparations such as land and building materials, while the new legislation lacked provisions regarding compensation for former female soldiers.
In the few instances where women were directly included in their countries respective peace accords, they were done so in a stereotypical manner, grouped together as one same homogeneous group, labeled using general terms such as indigenous or farmers and thus were not considered as a diverse group with varying needs 9.
According to testimonies and personal s of surviving women gathered by the Arias Foundation, upon reflection, there is a general consensus among them that this occurred in large part due to the prevailing patriarchal structures and mentality permeated in Central American culture, so that even though the Peace Accords were written in a neutral tense and are assumed to be applicable to all, in practice it has operated on more male-dominated terms.
Consequently, this affects all levels of governance — political, judicial, social, and economical — and therefore the risk lies in having a democratic system void of a gender perspective. By means of various projects and program initiatives, the Arias Foundation has provided support and technical assistance to governments and civil society organizations throughout the process of democratization in the region, with particular focus on ensuring the continuation of the implementation of the Peace Accords.
Central American women organizations are characterized by taking on the approach of focusing on one specific issue, such as access to land or human rights. This targeted approach has allowed for these organizations to become centers of expertise that in conjunction with their existing alliances and networks have consolidated their bases, thus influencing policy.
There are many concrete examples of women connecting and uniting as a reaction to their exclusion from the peace accords and subsequent governmental priorities. In El Salvador, groups such as COMADRES help women gain information regarding their disappeared, imprisoned, or dead relatives, as well as work towards the liberation of political prisoners who had been incarcerated during the war. A particular issue that several women organizations tackled after the wars was regarding access and reallocation of land, mainly in regards to returning refugees.
During the war, many Guatemalans, particularly of Mayan descent, were violently forced into exile and fled towards refugee camps in southern Mexico, Honduras, and Belize. Therefore, the Guatemalan refugee groups set a precedent by conducting direct negotiations with the government. Despite confirming the legal validity of the new legislation, men were being consistently ased as the legal he of household. Although women were allowed in to legally co-own purchased land, the prevalence of discriminatory actions continued to exist.
However, satisfactory political representation has yet to be achieved. According to data complied by the Inter-Parliamentary Union in Costa Rica ranked 8, Nicaragua 46, Panama 63, El Salvador 90, Guatemala and Honduras in global percentages of women occupying parliamentary seats. However, experience shows that it is not enough to have quota system if the women still do not occupy powerful legislative positions.
Honduras and Guatemala have the lowest percentage of women in parliament. Guatemala has no minimum quota system, despite the regulations defined in the Peace Agreements. The continuing consolidation of democratic values in post-conflict Central America requires the equal inclusion of both men and women in the political, economic, and social spheres. The hardships of wartime served to unite women under a single goal demanding gender-equity policies. The sacrifices and contributions made by women during the wars should not go unheard. However, democracy entails approaching gender without a biased focus to one sex or the other, but rather to acknowledge differences with the purpose of achieving equality for all people.
El conflicto armado y su impacto en la vida de las mujeres. About Authors. Home Articles.Women seeking La Paz
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